Understanding Chromatic Dispersion and how to measure it properly

In today’s and tomorrow's networks the bandwidth potential of each fiber has to be tested and documented. Beside OTDR and loss test, which will remain mandatory measurements, chromatic dispersion (CD), first and second order polarization mode dispersion (PMD have to be taken into account for the link design today. Chromatic Dispersion is the variation in the wavelength. It leads to spreading of the light pulses and eventually to inter-symbol-interference (ISI) with increased bit error rate (BER).
This paper explains the causes of Chromatic Dispersion, and how to measure it accurately and economically.